How did you determine that energy demand would rise by 14% by 2030?

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration projects a 24% increase nationwide by the year 2040, which amounts to a .9% increase on a yearly basis. Based on this data, we estimated that at 2030, that would amount to a 14% increase.

How were power shortages determined?

We analyzed the data EPA used in developing the Clean Power Plan to determine each state’s “energy profile.” The shortages represent carbon reduction requirements, potential or actual plant closures and increased demand by 2030.

How did you determine the carbon offset of transitioning from coal to natural gas?

When determining the offset of converting coal to natural gas, we determined the difference between the estimated carbon output of the states total or otherwise specified amount of coal and the amount of CO2 created by generating the same annual MWH using natural gas. This difference was the offset.

What is a “mass-based” approach?

EPA’s mass-based approach to meeting Clean Power Plan requirements is expressed as a maximum number of tons of carbon dioxide that may be emitted for each time period. As long as the state’s overall total CO2 tons emissions meet or fall below that number, the state goal is achieved for that time period.


What is a “rate-based” approach?

EPA’s rate-based approach to meeting Clean Power Plan requirements is expressed as a ratio of the number of pounds of CO2 per megawatt hour of generation from energy sources. As long as the state’s energy plants produce electricity at or below the prescribed rate— after adjusting for energy efficiency, renewables and other allowed credit—the state goal is achieved.


How did you determine the solar panel cost and land use projections?

Once the size of the energy shortage was projected, we used the calculation provided by the American Public Power Association report that provided a cost of $4,382,000/MwH. For land use extrapolation, we used the estimated square acreage per MwH, when it came to projecting land use for solar panels.

How did you calculate the homes comparisons?

We used the EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator.


Why aren’t all 50 states examined in the Clean Power Progress initiative?

The Clean Power Progress initiative is designed to power a fact-based conversation about the nation’s energy future, finding the most realistic path forward to meet clean energy goals while providing power for the nation’s projected needs. We currently have selected 27 states to represent various energy scenarios present across the country, in regions where the conversation is most focused: some states are more advanced in implementing renewable energy, some are more reliant on high-carbon sources, and some are in the process of mapping out what their next priorities should be. As the energy policy landscape shifts across the country, we are committed to contributing fact-based scenarios on the need for the development of energy infrastructure in additional states.


Where did you get your data?

Sources of Data:

EPA – 2012 Adjusted carbon based generation provided by NEI; Green House Gas Converter

State CPP Factsheets –

EIA (Choose state, use table 5)

Census –